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LGBT movement

The beginnings of the LGBT movement

First homosexual movement

LGBT movement, In the second half of the 19th century, sodomy was considered a crime in most Western countries and their colonies, it was decriminalized only in countries that had followed the example of the French penal code, which had no considered crimes only behavior that harmed a third party. , in Europe these exceptions were added to France, Spain, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Italy and Bavaria (before the formation of the German Empire), and in America Brazil, Mexico, Guatemala and Argentina. In the rest of the countries, homosexuals were sentenced to prison terms, generally between 5 and 10 years, which could go as far as life imprisonment, or even the death penalty. This situation means that in the last third of the century, initiatives began to emerge calling for decriminalization where homosexuality is still condemned. These were first individual actions of the first militants like those of Heinrich Hössli (1784-1864),[1]  Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825-1895)  or Károly Mária Kertbeny (1824-1882). 

LGBT movement

With the end of the century in Germany, associations began to organize themselves with the aim of obtaining the decriminalization of male homosexual practices which would originate during the Weimar Republic, the most active movement for the rights of homosexuals in the world. . In 1897, the Humanitarian Scientific Committee (Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee, WhK) was created in Berlin to fight against article 175 of the penal code and the social recognition of homosexuals and transsexuals, thus becoming the first public organization for the defense of human rights. the man. gay in the world  [4]The Scientific Humanitarian Committee managed to collect some 5,000 signatures from notable citizens demanding the elimination of Article 175 and took the petition to the Reichstag in 1898, but it was not admitted because it was supported only by the minority of the Social Democratic Party. 

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In the United Kingdom, where police pressure was stronger, a small group of underground activists also emerged, such as Edward Carpenter (1844-1929) or members of the Chaeronea order.

One of the committee’s co-founders, Dr. Magnus Hirschfeld, also founded and headed the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft (Institute for Sexual Research). The objective of this institution was sexological research, in all its aspects, including homosexuality, and it stood out for being a world pioneer in the promotion of international conferences on the study of sexuality, the organization of the World League for Sex Reform and the spread of what they called “sex reform”. “, claiming civil rights and social acceptance of homosexuals and transsexuals. 

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In 1903 another prominent gay organization was created, the  Gemeinschaft der Eigenen  (Community of His Own), founded by Adolf Brand with Benedict Friedlaender and Wilhelm Jansen, whose ideal was homosexual love between virile men and pedophilia according to the Greek model. [4]  Its members were intellectually close to the ideas of Gustav Wyneken on pedagogical eros and defended the masculinity of homosexuals. [6]They directly rejected the medical theories of the time on homosexuality, such as the intermediate sexual stages theory of Magnus Hirschfeld and the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee, believing that they propagated the stereotype of the effeminate homosexual; For this reason they frequently entered into controversy, although they also briefly collaborated with them in the 1920s to fight against Article 175. The Gemeinschaft der Eigenen,  in  addition to the political struggle, organized all kinds of cultural and outdoor activities for gays, and they published  Der Eigene  (The Own) the world’s first regular homosexual magazine (1896) (before Karl Heinrich Ulrichs had already published  Urnings magazine in 1870 , of which only one issue was published). [7]  Novels and books of all kinds appeared. 

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Other breakaway organizations arose with Hirschfeld’s organization. Hans Kahnert founded the German Friendship Association  in the 1920s to form bonds of camaraderie among gay Germans. A center was opened in Berlin with weekly meetings and the publication of a weekly bulletin called  Die Freundschaft  (Friendship).  In 1921, the association issued a call to action for German homosexuals to participate in legal reform:

LGBT Rainbow Flag 90×150

The cultural sphere also reflects this vindictive climate. The freedom of the press that existed under the Weimar Republic facilitated the emergence of a large number of publications on homosexuality. Thirty different newspapers, magazines and newsletters targeting homosexuals were published during the interwar period. [4]  In 1919, the first of several homosexual-themed films was made in Germany,  Anders als die Andern  (different from the others), starring Conrad Veidt, which tells the story of a blackmailed homosexual who asks desperate for help from a famous doctor (played by Magnus Hirschfeld himself) who ends up committing suicide due to social pressure. [10]  And in 1921, the homosexual theater group was foundedTheater of Eros  . Even in 1920, the first homosexual anthem  Das lila Lied  (the purple song) was composed. 

In 1929, the Scientific Humanitarian Committee, with the support of other homosexual organizations, succeeded in bringing decriminalization back to the Reichstag, getting a parliamentary committee to deal with a bill to remove Article 175. All party delegates German politicians, including the Communist Party of Germany, with the sole exception of the Nazi Party, voted to withdraw Article 175 during the vote in committee and its presentation to the plenary, when the collapse of the New York Stock Exchange, the financial crisis it caused, and the conditions for the annexation of Austria put an end to the new bill, and the climate of tolerance would disappear completely with the accession to power of the Nazi regime in 1933. 

homophilic movement

Template:AP The homosexual movement that emerged after World War II, approximately between 1945 and the late 1960s, was called the  homophilic (love) movement  , was adopted by groups of that time as an alternative to the word homosexual , to emphasize love instead of sex, and to move away from the negative and stereotypical image of the sexually promiscuous homosexual. The word was coined by Karl-Günther Heimsoth in his 1924 doctoral dissertation,  Straight and Homophile  .

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They wanted to make homosexuals accepted and respectable members of society by two means: the dissemination of scientific knowledge about homosexuality, which would dispel negative myths, and the debate to try to convince the majority of society that, despite differences that were reduced to the private sphere, homosexuals were normal and honest people. [14] These groups are considered politically moderate and cautious compared to previous and subsequent LGBT movements. There were a few more radical exceptions like the North American communist Harry Hay. However, few were willing to come out of the closet, as they risked imprisonment in most Western countries and homophobia was rampant in public opinion at the time.

During this period, several homophilic organizations were formed in various countries in Europe and America such as the Dutch COC, the Danish Forbundet af 1948 and the International Homosexual World Organization; the North American Mattachine Society and Daughters of Bilitis; and the English Homosexual Law Reform Society and Campaign for Homosexual Equality.

One of the main tasks carried out by homophilic groups was to publish magazines that disseminated scientific knowledge about homosexuality and dealt with the subject from a positive point of view, among these publications  Der Kreis  ,  Arcadie  and  ONE, Inc.

The term homophile fell into disuse with the decline of the movement and its organizations with the rise of the gay liberation movement from 1969.

LGBT liberation movement

The Stonewall riots in Greenwich Village protesting police harassment of New York’s gay community marked a turning point in the fight for gay civil rights around the world. They were unleashed on June 28, 1969 in response to a police raid on the gay bar, the Stonewall Inn, which spilled over into the surrounding streets for three days. It was the first time that the homosexual community had confronted the police forces forcefully, and they caused great unrest in the community, serving as a glue for the small homophilic organizations that had been operating until then. 

A few weeks later, the Gay Liberation Front (GLF) was founded in New York. The choice of his name is explained by his ideological proximity to the anti-imperialist struggles in Vietnam and Algeria. By the end of the year, the GLF already had groups in cities and universities across the country, and although it had a short-lived existence, it was quickly replaced by more stable groups such as the Gay Activists Alliance. . Similar organizations soon sprang up in Canada, France, the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Mexico, Argentina, Australia and New Zealand. And it didn’t take long for other groups to appear with the same goals in most countries of the world. Similar organizations soon sprang up in Canada, France, the United Kingdom, Belgium, 

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And it didn’t take long for other groups to appear with the same goals in most countries of the world. Similar organizations soon sprang up in Canada, France, the United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Mexico, Argentina, Australia and New Zealand. And it didn’t take long for other groups to appear with the same goals in most countries of the world.

To commemorate the first anniversary of the Stonewall Riot, the GLF organized a peaceful protest from Greenwich Village to Central Park, attended by 5,000 to 10,000 men and women. From then until today, most Gay Pride festivities are celebrated around this date, defined by D’Emilio as “the drop of a pitchfork heard around the world”.

The success and consequences of the Stonewall riots are largely due to the general change of mentality that had taken place in society in the 1960s, fostered by the sexual revolution, the feminist movement and the struggle for the civil rights of minorities. racial. Stonewall represents a turning point in the organization of collectives and the interconnection of the gay subculture, radically altering its political program. While previous generations of activists fought primarily for greater acceptance, the generations following Stonewall will demand full social recognition, integration and equal rights.

In most of Europe and America, the decriminalization of homosexuality was achieved, not without difficulty since in democratic countries like the United States, it had to be the Supreme Court that repealed the laws on sodomy which persisted in 2003. the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, in addition to fighting for the decriminalization of homosexual practices in the rest of the world, were to obtain the recognition of civil unions and same-sex marriage for to assimilate the rights of homosexual couples to those of the rest of the citizens in matters as common as inheritance, access to the partner’s social security, tax advantages, etc.

The first state in the world to legalize same-sex marriages was the Netherlands in 2001, with the first marriage taking place at Amsterdam City Hall on April 1 of that year.

The Netherlands was followed in recognizing same-sex marriages by Belgium (2003), Spain (2005), Canada (2005), South Africa (2006), Norway (2009), Sweden (2009) and Portugal (2010). In addition to six states in the United States, Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Mexico City (Mexico).

Additionally, many European and American states have passed laws allowing civil unions for same-sex couples, with varying degrees of similarity to marital unions.

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